The volatile keyword is used to represent variables that point to memory in other mapped devices. In such a case the value of the variable can be changed outside of a program. The compiler does not do additional optimizations to the code if there is volatile keyword.
ISR refers to the Interrupt Service Routines. These are procedures stored at specific memory addresses which are called when certain type of interrupt occurs. The ISRs cannot return a value and they cannot be passed any parameters.
The const qualifier identifies a specific parameter or variable as read-only attribute to the function or to the entire program. This can come in handy when we are dealing with static data inside function and in a program.
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