The following are the protocols under TCP/IP Application layer: FTP, TFTP, Telnet and SMTP.
By using address translation instead of routing, address sharing provides an inherent security benefit. That’s because host PCs on the Internet can only see the public IP address of the external interface on the computer that provides address translation and not the private IP addresses on the internal network.
Cables that are too long would result in signal loss. This means that data transmission and reception would be affected, because the signal degrades over length.